Glossary


Absolute Filtration Rate

The absolute filtration rate refers to the largest size particle that can pass through a specified filtration unit. See also Nominal Filtration Rate.

Adsorption

Accumulation of molecules at the surface of a solid or liquid.

Advanced Metering Area (AMA)

A portion of a system which is defined by the use and integration of smart metering, communication and information systems that enable a utility and its customers to communicate with one another.

Aerate / Aeration / Aerification

The process by which air is mixed with, dissolved in or circulated through water or other fluid.

Affiliate / Industry Affiliate

An industry affiliate is an association or water “cluster” which may provide a range of supports, services and benefits to member individuals or entities within an industry. An affiliate is typically a non-profit or non-governmental organization (NGO), and may represent a focus on a specific topic area or discipline within the industry and/or a particular geographic region. See also Water Cluster (Economic Development).

Anion

An anion is a negatively charged ion. See also Cation and Ion Exchange.

Anti-Corrosives

Anti-corrosives are chemical additives, treatments, coatings or linings which help to prevent corrosion, or the oxidation of metal(s) that may be used to hold, control or transport water-based fluids. See also Corrosion.

Anti-Scalants

Anti-scalants are chemical additives, treatments, coatings or linings which help to prevent scaling, or the deposit of particles or salts, on a surface that may be used to hold, control or transport water-based fluids. See also Scaling.

Aquaculture

The raising of water-based plants or animals for food.

Aquatic Feedstocks

Aquatic flora (plants) which may be used as a feedstock for another purpose, such as energy. Algae is of growing interest as a biofuel feedstock.

Aqueduct

A man-made channel created for the passage of water or water-based transport from one place to another.

Asset Tracking

Tracking the physical location of an asset, whether by manual tag, bar code, or passive signal

Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI)

Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) is an organization which defines the water-quality pre-treatment standard for water used in dialysis / hemadialysis. The absolute filtration rate refers to the largest size particle that can pass through a specified filtration unit. See also Nominal Filtration Rate.

Automation Panel

Automated control of complex procedures, with or without user interface.

AWWA Standards

AWWA publishes over 170 Standards that provide valuable information on design, installation, disinfection, performance and manufacturing of products including pipe, chemicals, storage tanks, valves, meters and other appurtenances; industry-recognized consensus prerequisites; and practices for water utility management and operations.

B.O.D.

Biochemical Oxygen Demand. Biological demand for oxygen in a solution

Backwash

To reverse the flow of water or other fluid so as to clean a device, such as a filter.

Backwash Filters

Media filters that operate on the principle of adsorption. At periodic intervals the flow of water is reversed and accelerated to release sediment that has been captured during normal operation

Bag Filter

A bag filter is a disposable filter that uses a barrier or sift method for removing particulates from water or other liquid. Cartridge filters tend to be made of fabric or polymers, and usually housed in some type of pressure vessel. Cartridge filters tend to be designed for filtration of particles between 1 to 1000 micron.

Bed Load

Sediment particles that are moved or transported by skipping, rolling or sliding along a stream or riverbed.

Beta Ratio

The Beta Ratio is a mathematical equation which refers to the ratio of the number of particles of a specific pore size which enter and leave the filtration unit. See also Absolute Filtration Rate, Nominal Filtration Rate and Pore Size Ratings.

Biocides/Biocidals

A substance or microorganism that exerts an impact (impede, inactivate, or control) on another harmful organism. A class of substances or microorganisms.

Bioreactors

Vessels that contain a reaction that involves the addition of organic or biochemistry as a catalyst. Either aerobic or anaerobic

Bore / Boring / Borehole

A borehole is a hole made or drilled deep into the ground in order to access water or other underground fluid, gas or material. To bore, or the action of boring, is to drill or create such a hole so as to establish access, e.g through a well.

Breakwater

A barrier that is built out into the water to protect a coast or harbor from the activity of waves.

Brine

Water saturated with salt content.

Bulkhead

The upright wall that separates water and land along a channel; a vertical wall that separates parts of a ship.

C.O.D.

Chemical Oxygen Demand. Oxidizable chemicals in a solution.

Cartridge Filter

A cartridge filter is a disposable and easily replaceable filter that uses a barrier or sift method for removing particulates from water or other liquid. Cartridge filters tend to be made of fabric or polymers, and usually housed in some type of pressure vessel. Cartridge filter tend to be designed for filtration of particles between 0.1 up to 500 micron.

Cation

An anion is a positively charged ion. See also Anion and Ion Exchange.

Centrifugal Pumps

Pumps that convert rotational energy to fluid movement. Close or long coupled attached to the drive motor.

Ceramic Filtration

Filters that utilize the small pore size of ceramic to remove contaminants from a water supply

Chemical Treatment

Application of chemistry to activate, inactivate, disinfect or otherwise affect a supply of water.

Clarifiers

Mechanical water treatment equipment that is used to separate solids from a water supply. Sometimes with the aid of coagulation

Clean Water Act (CWA)

The Clean Water Act is the primary federal law that frames a range of standards and regulations within the United States for the governing, management, prevention and reversal of water pollution.

Clean-In-Place (CIP)

Cleaning of processing equipment “in-place” without removing the equipment from its processing arrangement. Introduction of cleaning chemistries to eliminate accumulated waste products or residual materials.

Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)

The CLSI is an institution which provides voluntary standards for the preparation and testing of water within the clinical laboratory.

Cloud Seeding

The dispersal of crystals or particles into clouds to cause the release of precipitation (e.g. rain or snow).

Coagulation

A process of thickening suspended solids in a solutions to the point that their weight causes them to drop to the bottom of the solution

Coatings

A coating is a thin layer of a substance which is applied to “permanently” cover the surface of a material. Coatings may be used to protect a surface from such things as corrosion or scaling, as well as to prevent the leaking of fluids through a material.

Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO)

Combined Sewer Overflow, or CSO, refers to the discharge from a sewer system that has been designed to capture sewer as well as snow melt or stormwater. CSO discharge may be deposited to nearby waterways and contain untreated discharge if the combined capture of sewer and snow/stormwater exceeds the capacity of the system.

Condensation

Change in phase of a molecule from gas to liquid

Conductivity

A measure of the dissolved mineral content in a solution. Achieved by measuring how well electricity is conducted through the solution. The mineral content is the conducting media for the electricity.

Control Application

A mechanical or software application for process control.

Control Solution

A prepared solution used for practicing sampling techniques or for calibrating instruments.

Control System

Devices or software that directs or controls other devices or systems.

Controls & Instrumentation

Instrumentation refers to the use of measures and components to monitor the status or condition of a fluid, material or system. Instrumentation works in conjunction with controls, to provide the ability to manage or change the conditions of whatever the instrumentation may be measuring or monitoring, such as water volume, level or pressure.

Cooling Towers

Heat exchange equipment to discharge heat from a water cooling loop

Corrosion

Corrosion is the gradual degradation of a material due to the chemical reaction of the materials exposure to another substance or the environment. Corrosion most commonly refers to the chemical reaction of an oxidant (such as oxygen in the air or in water) with different types of metals.

Data Acquisition

Gathering of signals and readings from a process. Often the data is digitized from analog sources. Used to analyze performance of the process.

Data Logger

A device used to record a repetitive sequence of data signals for later evaluation.

Data Reporting

Acquisition, logging, conversion and analysis of process data.

Decommission

The preparation and procedures involved with the removal of equipment or system from service.

Deep Well Injection (Disposal)

Deep Well Injection refers to the process of using a well to inject and dispose of various types of fluid wastes (e.g. water, wastewater, brine or water mixed with chemicals) within rock formations such as limestone or sandstone that are deep underground. Deep Well Injection is a regulated industry in various regions of the world.

Deionization

Deionization is the process of removing ions from water. See also Electrodeionization and Ion Exchange.

Demineralized Water

Another term for deionized water. Water that has all of the cation and anion metals and salts removed. Generally by ion exchange.

Desalination/Desalinization

Removal of dissolved salts from a water supply

Detention Pond

A detention pond is a low-lying area designed to temporarily catch, hold and slowly drain set excess water in flood or other situations. See also Retention Pond.

Dewatering

Dewatering generally refers to the active process(es) involved in the removal of water from waste materials or sediment. A byproduct of dewatering may include sludge (see also Sludge).

Disc Filter

A disc filter is a type of filter in which a number of discs are stacked on top of one another to trap impurities as water flows through. Disc filters are primarily used in irrigation.

Disinfection

Removal or inactivation of bacterial or organic contamination by addition of chemistry, heat, or ultraviolet light.

Dispersant

A dispersant is a gas or liquid which is used to disperse or scatter particles within water or other medium.

Dissolved Solid

A dissolved solid refers to any type or combination of metal, salt, mineral, cation or anion that is dissolved in water. See also Total Dissolved Solids (TDS).

Dissolved Solids

Mineral content fully dissolved into solution. Impervious to filtration at a macro level. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) is the measure of all mineral content dissolved into a liquid. In water, this can be measured in parts per million (ppm), mg/liter, conductivity (micro-mhos), or resistivity (ohms or mega-ohms)

Distillation

Distillation is the process of purifying water or other liquids through the manipulation of water temperature.

Distribution / Distribution System

Within the water industry, distribution or a “distribution system” refers to the system and infrastructure of pipes, pumps, valves and related equipment which moves water from one place to another. A distribution system most often refers to the system used to move water treated for potable consumption within a community or region.

Distributor / Regional Distributor

A distributor is a company or agent that acts as a conduit between a manufacturer and a product’s ultimate market and customers. A distributor will generally manage the product inventory for a manager as well as the distribution of the product to various market channels. A regional distributor tends to focus on the market customers within a specific geography.

District Metered Area (DMA)

A specific geographic range of a water network, usually defined by a set of pipes and/or the opening or closing of valves or disconnects that manage the water flowing within the system to or from a specific service area.

Drainage

Drainage generally refers to the passive (as compared to active, as in dewatering) use of conduits and gravity to remove excess water or other fluid waste.

Dredging

Dredging is the act of digging out or removing material from an area, channel or throughway, such as the scooping of sediment deposits within a riverbed.

Drinking Water Treatment

By USEPA standards, water that is free of odor, color, and pathogens

Early Leak Detection

A system of sensors that can detect leaks early in the failure in order to protect assets.

Ecosystem & Species Restoration

An ecosystem is a community of living organisms which interact with one another. The restoration of an ecosystem or of the species that have inhabited an ecosystem refers to the various processes and interventions which may be enacted to bring the ecosystem or the species therein back to their original level or state.

Effluent

Effluent is the liquid discharge or waste that remains after use, and which is released back to a natural body of water or to another system for further treatment.

Electrodeionization

Electrodeionization is a water treatment process which uses an electrode to charge or “ionize” water molecules to separate out impurities. See also Deionization and Ion Exchange.

Embankment

A natural or artificial wall along the sides of a river to prevent flooding of the surrounding area.

Entrain / Entrainment

Entrainment is the stranding of these same organisms within the cooling facilities, subjecting them to high pressures and temperatures. See also Impingement.

Environmental Remediation

Reduction or removal of contaminants from water, soil, air.

Erosion & Erosion Control

Erosion refers to the breakdown or weathering away of rock or soil through the action of water, wind or other activities. Erosion control refers to the processes or intervention which may be enacted to prevent, manage or reverse the action of erosion through the use of natural plantings, the erection of manmade barriers, or the redirection of or protection from the elements.

Estuary

The tidal mouth of a large river where the river meets a larger body of water, such as a sea.

Evaporation

Change in phase of a molecule from liquid to gas

Feasibility Analysis

The feasibility stage of a project is an early stage of a project in which an assessment is made about the complexity and cost of how a project may be implemented. The outcomes of a feasibility analysis will often include the parameters and priorities for how a project should be implemented, which in turn are used in the project’s design and planning phases.

Field Analysis

Field analysis is the action of sampling and analyzing a fluid or substance at or within the environment in which the fluid or substance immediately resides or exists, such as within the natural environment. Field analysis is a process that may be adopted in contrast to or in conjunction with lab analysis.

Filter Beds

Volumes of filter media arranged for optimum removal of solids from a solution. Can be arranged in a pressure vessel for removal under pressure or in an open tank for gravity filtration

Filter Presses

Equipment used in the process of waste water treatment for dewatering waste.

Filtration-General & Macro

Removal of suspended solids from a water supply, most commonly by adsorption.

Filtration-Micro, Ultra, & Nano

Suspended solid filtration at levels of 0.1 – 3.0 microns (Micro filtration MF), 0.01 to 0.1 micron (Ultra filtration UF). Nano filtration removes dissolved larger molecular structures. All three are accomplished with the use of membrane materials rather than traditional particle filtration.

Financing / Grants & Financing

Throughout the year, a range of grant and financing opportunities are made available to industry stakeholders around the world. These opportunities may be in the form of grants provided by private foundations, or they may be in the form of loans or other financing instruments made available through federal, state or other public agencies as well as private providers such as banks. These capital resources are often designed to target specific agendas, such as the repair of water infrastructure, the restoration of wetlands, or the research and development of new water-treatment technologies.

Fisheries

A facility or area in which aquatic animals are raised for commercial purposes. See also Aquaculture.

Fittings

The term fittings refers to the selection, preparation and use of parts and components that enable various pieces of equipment to fit, join and work together, such as within a distribution system of pipes and valves.

Flocculation

Process of bonding together small light weight contaminant particle into heavier groups that can be clarified or filtered.

Flocculent

A flocculent is a substance or chemical additive which causes particles in water or wastewater to clump together so that they may be more easily caught and removed during filtration.

Flood Control & Response

Flood control and response denotes the incorporation and adoption of various processes and interventions to prevent, manage and reverse the action or damage of excess water in a system or area. Flood control may also refer specifically to the use of open-air ducts or channels that are put in place to capture, redirect or drain excess water e.g. alongside a highway.

Flowback Water

Flowback water is a term used within the oil and gas industry to refer to water which has been used for hydraulic fracturing and which has flowed back to the surface during and after the fracturing process. Flowback water is typically comprised of the source water and any additives used for the process, plus any additional hydrocarbons or other components which may have been picked up during or after the hydraulic fracturing process. Flowback may or may not be treated and/or reused for additional fracturing or other purposes.

GIS / Geographical Information System

Geographical information system, used for spatial modeling.

GPRS / General Packet Radio Service

Data transmission service based on volume of data transmitted, not time engaged.

GPS / Global Positioning System

Satellite-based navigation system that enables specific geographic location of a facility or asset.

Groundwater

Groundwater is water that resides below the surface within the soil or rock formations underground.

Groundwater Drilling – Commercial & Industrial

Drilling deep into the earth to access an aquifer or other deposit for commercial or industrial purposes.

Habitat

A habitat refers to the natural environment within which an organism lives.

Harbor or Port

A harbor is a coastal area characterized by natural or man-made structures or designs which protect vessels there from rough water, wave and tidal activity.

Hazardous Materials

Hazardous materials are any materials which could adversely affect the health of anyone with whom they might come into contact (e.g. a worker or the public at large). The use, management and disposal of hazardous materials is carefully regulated in many parts of the world.

High purity water

Intended for a specific purpose, this water is treated across a spectrum of methods, which can include: deionization, ultraviolet for bacteria and TOC. The higher the required standard of quality, the less stable this quality is in atmosphere

HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning)

HVAC, or heating, ventilation and air conditioning, refers to a discipline of mechanical and electrical engineering focused on the balance of energy use and comfort within indoor settings. HVAC systems are often linked, feed to or depend upon proximal water systems.

Hydroacoustic

Study of the behavior of sound in water; use of sound to benchmark or detect changes in water environments.

Hydrocarbons

A class of organic compounds (organic meaning the presence of carbon) containing only hydrogen and carbon.

Impinge / Impingement

Impingement is the trapping of aquatic organisms against the intake screens of facilities drawing cooling water from waters of the United States. See also Entrainment.

Industrial Wastewater

Wastewater generated from an industrial process as distinct from sewage waste

Influent

Influent refers to the water source coming in to a system for use, or body of water that feeds into another body of water, such as a stream flowing into a lake.

Inorganic Compounds

Compounds of elements not containing carbon.

Inspection

Inspection may refer to the formal or regulated as well as informal activity of examining an area, system or component for flaws or defects.

Invasive Species

An invasive species is an organism – fauna (animal) or flora (plant) – which is not native to a specified area, and which upon introduction to the area, disrupts the health, economy, biodiversity or balance of the surrounding environment. Some of the better known invasive species within the water industry include zebra mussels and some species of Hydrilla, as well Asian carp within the United States.

Ion Exchange

The exchange of a charged molecule – (ion, anion = - charge, cation = + charge) from a media (solid or liquid) on the surface of a resin bead. The exchange occurs as the ion becomes attached by electrical charge to the resin bead and the resin releases an oppositely charged ion into the media.

Irrigation

Irrigation refers to the practice and supporting systems of artificial waterworks used to direct and apply water to soil such as for agriculture.

Lab Testing & Analysis

Lab testing and analysis refer to activities in which a specimen of interest for study is removed from its natural (“field”) or immediately resident environment for closer examination within a controlled laboratory setting.

Laboratory Water

Water treated to a standard to meet required laboratory specifications across a spectrum of filtration, deionization, UV treatment, continuous flow, non-leachable materials

Lagoon

A lagoon may refer to an artificial pond or pool used to capture and contain stormwater excesses or to hold wastewater for treatment. In the natural environment, a lagoon refers to a stretch of salt water separated from an ocean or sea by a sandbar or reef.

Level Logger

An automated recording of liquid levels in a storage vessel.

Lime Softening

Treatment of a volume or flow of raw water with lime to raise the pH, causing certain dissolved solids to precipitate out of solution and be removed by filtration

Linings

Linings, like coatings, are applied to cover the surface of a material to protect the surface from such things as corrosion or scaling, as well as to prevent the leaking of fluids through the material. In contrast to coatings, linings may adopted for more “temporary” use as with a non-permanent structure or naturally porous area (e.g. the ground), as linings may be more easily swapped out, moved or replaced. See also Tanks & Containers.

Liquid-Solids Separation

Treating a mixture by chemical or physical means in order to separate the mixture into its individual components.

Logging System

Recording, collecting, converting, and reporting liquid levels in a storage vessel.

Media Filtration

Removal of suspended solids from a solution by means of adsorption or absorption.

Membrane Bioreactors

A separation method using both small pore membranes and biological catalyst to enhance the process.

Membrane Filtration

Separation of dissolved and suspended solids from a solution by means of a small pore membrane, capable of removing solids down to the ionic level

Membrane Technologies

Developing technologies utilizing semi-permeable membranes for separation applications

Metals/Heavy Metals

The category “metals” makes up 75% of the periodic chart. Metals are solid at room temperature. “Heavy Metals” is a term that refers to metals that are toxic to the environment and health.

Metering & Smart Metering

Water metering refers to the action or device used to measure the quantity of water passing through a particular conduit or outlet. “Smart metering” refers to the use of sensors and/or software to collect information and to enable real-time or near real-time control or decision support based upon the information collected. See also Smart Water.

Microfiltration

A cross-flow membrane process that can separate particles in the range of .05 – 10 microns in size from a solution.

Mobile Water Treatment

A variety of mobile mounted water treatment equipment in/or on trailers. Options include filtration, softening, demineralization, ultra-filtration, reverse osmosis

Modeling & Projections

Modeling refers to the process of using data or various data points, usually with the use of computer software, to assess or predict how a material or system will behave under various conditions. Modeling multiple scenarios and predicting the likely outcomes of these scenarios may be referred to as establishing “projections.”

Monitoring System

A system of devices arrayed to gather information.

Municipal Wastewater

Collected wastewater streams from residential, commercial and industrial sources within the service area.

Municipal Water

A water collection, treatment and distribution system owned and or operated by a municipality

Nanofiltration

A membrane separation technology focused on removing particles in the molecular size range.

Nexus - Food, Water & Energy ("INFEWS")

The Nexus of Food, Energy and Water Systems (INFEWS) refers to the increasing exploration and analysis of the inter-dependencies of these systems, the impact of current and potential deficits in any one of the resources involved on the other two, and ways in which risks may be mitigated for populations and industries impacted.

Nexus - Water & Energy

The Water and Energy Nexus refers to the inter-dependencies of water and energy systems: access, treatment and distribution of water to industry and communities depends upon the availability of energy to do it, and in turn the ability to provide energy is often dependent upon access to water. In addition, the processes involved with power generation may include the risk of contaminating water resources.

Nominal Filtration Rate

The nominal filtration rate refers to the percent of particles that the filter media retains at the specified pore-size rating. See also Pore Size Rating and Absolute Filtration Rate.

Non-Point Source Pollution

Non-Point Source Pollution is pollution that may come from multiple sources, and which tends to be moved or spread through the action of weather-related conditions.

NPDES / NPDES Permit (US EPA)

NPDES stands for “National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System,” and refers to a protocol and permitting process related to the United States Clean Water Act. The NPDES Permitting program is managed by the United States Environmental Protective Agency (US EPA) to control water pollution and regulate pollutants discharged to water bodies across the United States. For more information, see: http://water.epa.gov/polwaste/npdes/.

Operator / Operations & Management

In the water industry, operators provide the role of managing the operations of water treatment and/or water distribution systems. Water operators may be from a public agency (e.g. a public municipality), a public or private utility, or a private-sector management company.

Organic Compounds

Compounds of elements containing carbon.

Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM)

An Original Equipment Manufacturer or “OEM” is a company which develops and produces products which then comprise – in whole or in part – the supply chain of another company’s products or systems. The customers of OEMs tend to be other companies which purchase the OEM’s parts, products or components in the development or construction of their own products or systems.

ORP – Oxidation / Reduction Potential

The potential of a chemical solution to take up or discharge electrons

Osmosis – Normal

The flow of solids from a concentrated side to the dilute side of membrane as a solution moves to equilibrium across the membrane.

Osmosis – Reverse

The use of pressure to overcome the normal flow of solids from the concentrated side of a membrane to the dilute side. The effect is to move concentrated solids from the dilute to the concentrate, reducing the level of solids on the dilute side to the extent possible given the pressure applied

Outfall

The location or conduit where a sewer, river or drain empties into a larger body of water.

Ozone & UV Treatment

Disinfection methods for the treatment of a water flow. Ozone works by oxidation, UV by deconstructing the bacteria at a cellular level

Ozone Generators

Equipment that creates ozone (Oȝ).

pH

Literally the potential of a solution to take up hydrogen or to release hydrogen. The pH scale measures this potential from low (acidic) to high (base). The scale of this measure is logarithmic, meaning that one step on the scale is ten times the potential of the previous number. i.e. pH 7 is ten times more basic than pH 6.

Pharmaceuticals & Personal Care Products (PPCPs)

Discharge of these chemicals into the environment. An evolving area of environmental concern.

Phytoremediation & Organic Interventions

The engineered use of vegetation to contain or extract contaminants from water or soil. The use of naturally occurring materials for remediation of contamination.

Pipes / Piping

Pipes and piping are tubes which are used to convey water, wastewater or other fluids from one place to another. Depending upon use, these tubes may be manufactured from various materials in a wide range of sizes. Pipes and piping are often equipped with valves and pumps to manage the flow, pressure and level of the fluids they carry, and comprise the primary channel for carrying fluids across a distribution system (see Distribution System).

Planning & Design

The planning and design stages of a project represent the early points in a project, prior to implementation, in which a large project is broken down into its separate components for the identification of project requirements, structure, budget and materials. Planning and design of a project is often informed by a preceding “feasibility analysis” which can help to define the project’s parameters and priorities.

Plumbing (General)

Plumbing refers to the various apparatus that comprising a system used for water supply, wastewater or sanitation, including the system’s pipes, valves, pumps, fittings, tanks or containers or other equipment.

Point of Use (POU) / Point-of-Use

Point of Use (POU) refers to the place or time in which a product or service is used. Within the water industry, POU often refers to the place at which an end-consumer access water, such as at the kitchen faucet.

Pore Size Ratings

Pore size ratings refer to the size of particle (in micrometers / microns) that is retained by a specific filter media to a specific degree of efficiency. See also Absolute Filtration Rate, Nominal Filtration Rate and Beta Ratio.

Potable

Simply defined, potable water is water which is safe to drink.

Pressure Logger

A device to periodically record pressure in a system, liquid or air.

Process Control

Automated or manual control of a defined process.

Process Water

Water treated to a specific quality for use in a defined process

Produced Water

Produced water is a term used within the oil and gas industry to refer to water which is produced as a byproduct in the drilling for and production of oil and gas from underground reservoirs. In these processes, water is released from various types of rock formations deep underground and is released (or “produced”) during drilling and production. Produced water tends to have extremely high salinity and is typically considered a waste product in the oil and gas industry.

Pumps

Pumps are used to apply pressure on water, wastewater or other liquids within a system to force or change the movement of the fluid(s) within the system.

Purification

Removal of chemicals, solids, gases, and other contaminants from water.

Purified Water

Purified water refers to water which is cleaned, treated and/or sterilized to a standard for use in pharmaceutical, bottled consumption or clean-room applications (e.g. manufacturing of precision electronics). Processes used to produce purified water may include reverse osmosis, deionization, distillation or other treatment to remove impurities. See also Purification.

Radioactive Substances/Contamination

Contamination of a water supply or source due to the presence of decaying nuclear elements.

Rainwater Harvesting

The capture of rainwater for future use.

Real Time / "Real-Time"

Information gathered and reported as it occurs rather than in batch mode; acquisition, conversion, and/or reporting of collected data without time delay (batch processing).

Refurbished

Refurbished is a term used to refer to equipment, components or supplies which have been previously used and which have been rebuilt, repaired or rehabilitated to that they may be used again.

Rehabilitation or Restoration

Rehabilitation means to restore or rebuild something – whether man-made or within a natural environment – to its previous condition.

Remote Automation

Control and measurement of systems remote from a control room.

Remote Control

Control by radio, infra-red, or wire of a device or process from a remote location, however close in proximity.

Remote Leak Detection

Monitoring of and reporting on leaks in a distribution or storage system.

Remote Monitoring

Relying on a system of sensors and data transmission to monitor key factors of a system, from a remote location.

Remote Sensing

Remote sensing refers to the use of satellite or other above-ground apparatus to detect or track information about a system or area. Examples of remote sensing within the water industry may be include the tracking of moisture levels in drought-stricken areas, or the monitoring of algae levels in various bodies of water.

Remote Tank Monitoring

Monitoring tank levels by means of a system of level and pressure sensors.

Requests / Project-Related Requests (RFPs, Bids, RFQs, Tenders…)

Project-related requests are typically initiated by water-solution “Seekers.” These Seekers are looking for help on a water-related issue, and in so doing, announce a “Request for Qualifications” to learn about the qualifications of various potential service providers (“Solvers”), as well as a “Request (or Invitation) to Bid,” “Request for Proposal” (RFP), “Request for Quote” (RFQ), or “Invitation to Tender” as part of their procurement process in order to review and select the service provider they feel will best fit the project at hand. See also Seeker and Solver.

Research & Development (R&D) / Applied Research

The general goals of “research and development” (R&D) or “applied research” include the study of a topic as framed by a specific agenda to apply the insights gained from the study to the development of new products or processes. Applied research is often pursued within commercial enterprises or by way of public/private partnerships.

Research (Pure / Publication-Focused)

Pure research references the practice of research or study of a topic for the purposes of deepening knowledge within an industry. One objective of this kind of research is to provide insights gained through study to the market by way of industry publications and periodicals.

Retention Pond / Retention Basin

A retention pond or basin is an (often low-lying) area designed to catch and hold water, wastewater or other fluid for an indefinite period of time. A retention pond may be fitted for slow drainage of fluids to another location, or it may be designed for holding until the fluid it contains is specifically transported elsewhere for treatment or disposal. See also Detention Pond.

Reuse & Recycling

Secondary use of a water supply for either a new purpose or, following some remedial treatment, recycling of the water supply back to its original use.

River Basin

An area of land naturally drained by a network of rivers and tributaries.

Runoff

Runoff refers to the draining away of water or other fluids from a system or area. Within the water industry, the word “runoff” may be used also as a noun to refer to that which has been drained away.

Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)

The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) is the primary federal law within the United States which governs the management and treatment of water for the use of drinking water to ensure public safety.

Salinity

Salinity refers to the level of dissolved salt content within a body of water.

Sampling

Sampling refers to the action of taking a small amount of a substance to benchmark or test its current composition, or to track changes in composition over time.

Sand Filtration

Use of screened sand (for sizing) in the adsorption process

Sanitation / Sanitization

Removal / reduction of microorganisms by mechanical, heat, or chemical means.

Scaling

Scaling refers to the buildup of particles or salts on a surface, such as the inside of a pipe or the surface of a membrane. Excessive scaling can block or disrupt the flow or filtration of water.

Screen filter

A screen filter is a type of filter which uses a screen apparatus, whether rigid or flexible, to separate sand or other particulates from water. Screen filters are frequently used in irrigation and industrial applications.

Sea Wall / Seawall

A barrier that is erected to protect land areas from the erosion or weathering of waves and tides.

Sediment Control & Management

Sediment refers to material that settles at the bottom of a liquid. Within natural environments, sediment is generally that material comprised of dirt or sand which accumulates within a body of water due to erosion and weather conditions over time. Sediment control and management may involve “erosion control” measures as well as the “dredging” of sediment from bodies of water to prevent any disruption in commerce or transport.

Seeker

A Seeker is any entity – public, industrial or otherwise – that has accountability for a water issue or challenge. Examples of Seekers might include a city municipality or rural public agency that provides drinking water or sewerage services to residents; an industrial company that uses large volumes of water in its manufacturing processes, or that must comply with stringent water-related regulations; a military or emergency-response initiative that needs to deploy mobile water services; or even a commercial enterprise such as a restaurant or hotel resort that manages its own water system. Some organizations may be Solvers as well as Seekers. See also Solver.

Sensors

A sensor is an electronic device which detects and/or records the physical properties or conditions surrounding it. Sensors which detect water volume, flow, rate, pressure or levels within a system have been in use within the water industry for many years. The development and use of sensor systems which are able to detect substances, contaminants or overall quality within water or wastewater is an evolving field.

Separator / Separation

A separator, or the act of separation, refers to a process in which water is separated from another substance, such as oil.

Sewer / Sewage Management

Sewage refers to human waste which is carried by water through a water (sewer) system. Sewer or sewage management refers to the processes, system and infrastructure components which carry sewage through a system for treatment.

Skimming

Removal of separated solids from the surface of a volume of water

Sludge / Sludge Management or Removal

Sludge refers to a wet, viscous substance which is a mixture of solid and liquid components. Sludge may be a waste product or byproduct of e.g. industrial or sewerage filtration processes or dredging. Sludge management or removal may include the further separation of the solid and liquid components of sludge, and/or its removal and disposal (e.g. as hazardous waste) by injection or incineration.

Sluice / Sluiceway

A gate or other device which may manipulated to control the flow of water

Smart Water Networks, Systems & Software

“Smart water” and smart water systems and networks refer to the use of devices within a water or wastewater system to monitor, track, notify, control or change the various conditions within the system according to specifically collected information. Smart water may employ a range of metering or sensor devices to collect information which is managed by software and channeled through a user interface for tracking and decision support. Smart water devices, software, systems and networks represent an emerging and quickly evolving field that is of particular interest for water use and security applications.

Softening

The ion exchange of “hardness” minerals (calcium and magnesium). These minerals deposit at low temperatures and cause scaling below the boiling point of water.

Solver

A Solver is any entity with products, services or specific expertise around water-related issues, such as consulting/engineering, corrosion, remediation, management, containment, treatment, infrastructure, filtration, controls, monitoring, purification, desalination, reuse, or other interests. Some organizations may be Seekers as well as Solvers. See also Seeker.

Source Water

Source water refers to the source of water used for a purpose – whether lake, river, stream, seawater or groundwater. Source water is most often used to refer to the source of water for drinking water within a community, but may also refer to a water source used for other (e.g. industrial) applications.

Spatial Data

Information that identifies geographic location. Raw data for a Geographic Information System (GIS).

Spillway

A channel , conduit or containing area for excess water coming off of a dam.

Start-Up & Commissioning

“Start-up” refers to the preparation and series of steps or events required to start individual pieces of equipment or an entire system for the first time. Commissioning essentially refers to the supporting protocol of engineering practices that support start-up, changeover, maintenance and turnover of equipment and systems.

Stormwater Management

Stormwater refers to the excess quantities of water in an area or system which may result from unusual levels of precipitation, melt or runoff. Stormwater is important to many regions as a source for replenishing aquifers or surface bodies of water. Stormwater management refers to the range of man-made products, processes or interventions that may be applied to channel, move or dissipate stormwater to replenish or to prevent flooding within a system or area.

Submersible Pumps

Pumps close coupled to the drive motor, which is hermetically sealed. This pump is submerged in the solution to be pumped

Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)

SCADA is an acronym for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition, and generally refers to an industrial system, usually supported by software, which enables the monitoring and control of a system’s various components. In the water industry, SCADA may be used by a municipality or utility to monitor and control the movement of water or wastewater through a distribution system, to detect leaks, or to adjust water pressure or level.

Surface Water

A water supply that exists on the surface of the earth, exposed to atmosphere.

Suspended Solids Monitoring

Measuring and reporting of suspended solids (not dissolved) in a solution

System Design & Integration

Systems design and integration refers to the process of designing a system and/or integrating new or existing system components with another new or existing system. In the water industry, system design and integration may involve a range of engineering disciplines for the development of a new infrastructure system to manage water or wastewater, or for the expansion or joining of more than one water management system.

System Integration

Bringing together discrete systems by networking, process control, or programming.

System Monitoring

A component subsystem used to control and monitor resources and performance.

Tank Gauge

A device for monitoring tank level, either with level float switches or pressure sensors.

Tanks & Containers

Tanks and containers are man-made vessels of various shapes and sizes which may be used to hold or transport fluids or solids. A tank or container may be designed and manufactured of materials such as metals or polymers so as to specifically prevent a chemical interaction between the vessel and the substance it may contain. Like linings and coatings (which may be applied in conjunction with a tank or container), these vessels are used to prevent the unintended leaking or release of fluids or substances.

Technology Testing, Validation & Certification

The various materials, parts, components, products, processes and technologies that comprise a water-management system may be subject to specific standards. The process of testing ensures that these elements can meet applicable standards; the process of validation ensures that the results of testing can be duplicated and verified; and the process of certification ensures that these results are dependable and repeatable under specific conditions. Applicable validation and certification standards may vary by industry or geography, and validation and/or certification may be required before a material, part, component, product, process or technology can be deployed for use.

Technology Transfer / Tech Transfer

Technology Transfer (or “Tech Transfer” for short) refers to the exchange of knowledge, skills, intellectual property, methods, know-how or product between academic or governmental institutions often in conjunction with private-sector interests for the purpose of introducing and/or commercializing scientific and technological innovations within the marketplace.

Tertiary Water Treatment

Third level of wastewater treatment, primarily for removal of nutrients and for disinfection

Thermal Management & Mitigation

Within the water industry, thermal management and mitigation are activities which refer to the monitoring and control of water temperature. Thermal mitigation may of particular concern for industries such as electric power generation or metals processing in which water may be raised to extremely high temperatures, and the water must be cooled again prior to releasing it back into the natural environment.

Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)

Total dissolved solids (TDS) is a water-quality related term which refers to the total content of all organic and/or inorganic solids which are dissolved (filterable) within water. TDS is expressed in units of milligrams (mg) per unit volume of water (e.g. mg/L). See also Total Suspended Solids (TDS).

Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Monitoring

Measuring and reporting of organic molecules in water. Organic meaning containing carbon.

Total Suspended Solids (TSS)

Total suspended solids (TSS) is a water-quality related term which refers to the total content of organic and/or inorganic solids which are suspended within water. TSS is expressed in units of milligrams (mg) per unit volume of water (e.g. mg/L). See also Total Dissolved Solids (TDS).

Tuneable Surfaces

The term “tuneable surfaces” refers to the dynamic nature of a material or application of a substance or treatment which enable a surface to behave in different ways depending upon the requirements of a process or surrounding system, such as the need or ability to increase or decrease the friction of a surface as fluid moves against it.

Turbidity Monitoring

A measure of suspended material in water, as determined by how light passes through the water sample

Ultrafiltration

Filtration removal by membrane technology. Removal capability in the macro-molecular range.

Ultra-Purification

Purification of water for industrial purposes. Extends purification to reduction of solids, organics

Ultraviolet (UV) Light / Ultraviolet (UV) Oxidation

Application of either of two wavelengths of ultraviolet light to eliminate the ability of microorganisms to reproduce, effectively eliminating the organisms. Alternatively used to break apart total organic carbons for removal.

United States Pharmacopeia (USP)

The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) is an organization which defines the standards for purified water for use in pharmaceuticals, including the processes used to remove impurities to produce purified water such as reverse osmosis, deionization and distillation.

Utility Data

A collection of information gathered in the operation of a utility from sensors, meters, sub systems.

UV (Ultraviolet) Water Treatment

Ultraviolet radiation of a water volume or flow. Two different wavelengths can be utilized. One for disinfection of the sample by deconstruction of the bacteria cell structure. The other for deconstructing organic carbon molecules.

Valves

A valve is a device used to control the passage of water, wastewater or other fluid through a pipe, duct, tube or other conduit. A valve acts as a door or flap which may open or close – manually or through automation – to control the movement of a fluid.

Wastewater / Waste Water

Wastewater (also spelled “waste water”) refers to any water that has changed in quality due to man-made processes or uses. Categories include gray water (utility water from laundry, cooking, bathing) and black water (water from toilets, human and animal waste). Wastewater from sewer systems may be channeled through a distribution system to return it for water treatment and disinfection; wastewater from industrial processes may be treated on-site of an industrial facility, removed from the facility for disposal such as deep-well injection, and/or be released as an effluent back into a natural environment.

Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP)

Facilities designed for the primary, secondary and tertiary treatment of wastewater, municipal or industrial.

Water Audit

A process by which a quantitative and/or qualitative review of water use is made to determine the existence of leaks, and/or opportunities to reduce, reuse or recycle water resources.

Water Cluster (Chemistry)

In chemistry, a water cluster refers to the assembly of multiple water molecules.

Water Cluster / Water Innovation Cluster (Economic Development)

In civic, regional, community and academic settings, a water cluster or “water innovation cluster” refers to a geography-specific collection of water-focused (commercial, public, non-governmental and/or academic) institutions which may collaborate for the purpose of innovation, adoption, import/export or other economic development-focused activities relating to water challenges, technologies, products or services.

Water Disinfection

Removal or deactivation of all pathogens in a water supply

Water Disinfection By-Products

Some disinfection methods leave residue behind in the water. Others can combine with organic matter to create tri-halomethanes, known carcinogens

Water Filter Media

Sand, carbon, ceramic, particles used in water filtration

Water Filtration

Passing water through a volume of media for the removal of suspended solids

Water Infrastructure

Pumping and piping to distribute water within a system

Water Quality Control

A process defined to monitor, report, and act on information relative to maintaining a prescribed quality of water; may be automated.

Water Sampling

Collecting an aliquot of water for the determination of certain quality parameters

Water Scarcity

Sparse availability of water, insufficient to meet demand

Water Security

Water security refers to the capacity of an entity, community, region or nation to protect its water resources and water-management systems. The ability to ensure water security may be supported through the use of monitoring, detection and safety-related devices, such as “smart water” systems or networks.

Water Treatment Chemicals

Chemicals created for or used naturally for the treatment of a particular water condition

Water Treatment Plants

Facilities designed for the filtration and disinfection of a water supply

Water Treatment Polymers

Chemical formulations to aid in the flocculation, coagulation, and filtration of water contaminants

Water-Energy Nexus

The Water-Energy Nexus refers to the relationship between the total amount of water in all its forms needed to generate energy, and the total amount of energy needed to procure, treat, hold, distribute and manage water.

Water-Energy-Food Security Nexus

The Water-Energy-Food Security Nexus refers to the relationships between water, energy and food being inextricably linked and inter-dependent; that risks on any one of the three components within the nexus also puts the other components at risk.

Waterlines

Waterlines may refer to the pipes, tubes or conduits used to convey water from one place to another. In shipping, the waterline refers to the level of the surrounding water against the hull of a ship.

Watermain / Water Main

A water main is a primary pipe, tube or conduit within a water system off of which additional conduits may be attached to move water from one place to another.

Watershed

A naturally occurring area or ridge of land which separates the flow of water in a region to different rivers, lakes, basins or seas.

Weirs, Sluices, Flumes, Gates

Mechanical means for separating flows or bodies of water. Generally passive in nature

Well Drilling / Boring

Gaining access to underground aquifers or other deposits by deep drilling or boring into the earth.

Well Maintenance

Maintaining a flow of water into a well by keeping the bore hole clean and the aquifer open. A well is a deep hole created to access water, gas or other material underground, or to for use to dispose of a substance to an underground location. Depending upon use of the well, various structures for stabilizing or ensuring the integrity of the well may be regulated.

Well Rehabilitation

Cleaning, re-opening, or re-drilling of an existing well in order to improve or recreate flow.

Wetland

A wetland is an area of marshes or swamps. In addition to providing a habitat for a range of flora and fauna, wetlands are believed to help mitigate extreme weather effects along coastlines as well as provide a natural aid in filtration of a range of wastes and toxins.